Refractive defects Myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism
By DR. FLORA HERNÁNDEZ
The human eye works similar to a camera. Thus, through a lens system (the cornea and the lens), it focuses the light coming from the objects on the retina (which would be equivalent to photographic film).
A refractive defect (or ametropia) is an ocular alteration that causes the image not to focus precisely on the retina, producing blurred vision that can usually be corrected by placing a lens in the light path. The variations in the eye’s length, the shape of the cornea, or the lens’s transparency can cause refractive errors.
Types of refractive defects
Depending on where the light is focused inside the eye, we talk about:
Myopia: when light is focused before reaching the retina (because the eye is too long, or the cornea or lens is too powerful). Distant objects are blurry, although up close, it is usually good.
Farsightedness: the image is focused behind the retina. It usually manifests itself by poor near vision, although vision can be blurry both far and near in high
hyperopia. Young people can have good vision but associated with headaches or visual fatigue.
Astigmatism: in this case, more than one distance point is formed. Small degrees of astigmatism associated with myopia or hyperopia is widespread. In high astigmatism cases, the images may be elongated or slanted when corrected with glasses, and the use of contact lenses is necessary. Presbyopia or eyestrain is a natural condition that manifests itself after 40 years due to the loss of the lens’s elasticity and makes it difficult to focus on nearby objects.
Correction of refractive errors
Interposing a lens will bring the focus of light to the retina (glasses, contact lenses (soft or semi-rigid), or refractive surgery.)
To find out if you have any of these problems, do not hesitate to have an eye exam. At Ópticas del Sol, we can help you with the best option to correct your problem.
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